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Vaccine Fact Sheets

Bacillus Calmette Guerin

What is the BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccine?

The BCG vaccine provides protection against infection that causes tuberculosis (TB).

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

This vaccine helps to prevent tuberculosis (TB), a serious and sometimes fatal infection.

Who should get this vaccine?

Tuberculosis (TB) is not common in North America but is common in South America, Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and Russia. The vaccine is recommended for individuals that are at high risk for tuberculosis infection such as living or working in close contact with someone infected with the disease, poor access to health care and travelling to or working in regions where tuberculosis is common.

What is tuberculosis (TB)?

TB is a very contagious disease that is caused by bacteria.

What are the symptoms of tuberculosis (TB)?

TB causes fever, chest pain, tiredness, a loss of appetite, chills, night sweats, and a bad cough that can result in coughing up blood or sputum.

How is it spread?

TB can be easily spread through close contact, with an infected person who coughs and sneezes.

Cholera

What is the Chol-Ecol-O vaccine?

The cholera and travller's diarrhea vaccine protects against infection from the cholera bacteria and traveller's diarrhea.

What are the benefit of this vaccine?

The vaccine protects against infection from cholera and traveller's diarrhea.

Who should get this vaccine?

The vaccine is recommended for travellers 2years of age or older, and for individuals working in the Caribbean, Central and South America, Southeast Asia, Africa, and Eastern or Southern Europe.

What are cholera and traveller's diarrhea?

Cholera and traveller's diarrhea causes infection of the intestine. If it is untreated, it can cause severe dehydration and death.

What are the symptoms of cholera and traveller's diarrhea?

Many people who are infected don't have any symptoms. Others do have symptoms. These symptoms include diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting.

How is it spread?

Infection can occur by eating and drinking food or water that is contaminated. It can also be spread by coming in contact with infected stool.

Diphtheria + tetanus + acellular pertussis + hepatitis B + inactivated poliomyelitis + Haemophilus influenza

What is the DTaP-HB-IPV-Hib vaccine?

DTaP-HB-IPV-Hib vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), hepatitis B, polio, and Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib)

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

The DTaP-HB-IPV-Hib vaccine is the best way to protect against infection from diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), hepatitis B, polio, and Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib), which are serious and often fatal diseases.

Who should get this vaccine?

The DTaP-HB-IPV-Hib is recommended for children between 2 months and 7 years of age.

What are diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), hepatitis B, polio, and Hib?

Diphtheria: is a contagious disease caused by bacteria that infects your nose, throat or skin. 

Tetanus: is a serious and often deadly disease caused by bacteria that live in dirt, dust and soil.

Pertussis (whooping cough): is a highly contagious respiratory infection. Infection can lead to uncontrollable coughing and difficulty breathing. It is most severe in infants under the age of 1.

Hepatitis B: is a contagious viral infection of the liver. The disease can be short-term (acute) or long term (chronic).

Polio: is a contagious disease that attacks your immune system; it can paralyze muscles and cause death.

Hib: is a bacterial infection that can cause blood infection (sepsis), brain infection (meningitis) and lung infection (pneumonia). children under the age of 5 are at greatest risk of contracting Hib.

What are the symptoms of diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), hepatitis B, polio, and Hib?

Diphtheria: some individuals infected with diphtheria do not look or feel sick. Others have difficulty swallowing and develop a sore throat, fever and chills. People with diphtheria can also suffer from suffocation, paralysis, heart failure, coma; these may also cause death,

Tetanus: the toxin that is released into the body affects the nervous system, causing painful muscle spasms. The first symptom is usually spasm of the jaw muscles ("lockjaw") followed by painful spasms of muscles in the face, neck, chest, abdomen, arms and legs.

Pertussis (whooping cough): early symptoms are similar to that of the common cold, which include mild fever, coughing, a runny nose, and watery eyes. As the disease progresses, the coughing gets worse; problems with coughing can last from six to 12 weeks. Severe symptoms can include choking, vomiting, brain damage and death.

Hepatitis B: Acute Hepatitis B can cause fever, tiredness, less of appetite and yellowing of the skin and eyes. It can also lead to chronic hepatitis B. Some people do not develop symptoms of illness. Chronic Hepatitis B can cause serious liver disease such as scarring of the liver (cirrhosis) and liver cancer.

Polio: some people who are infected with polio don't show any symptoms. Other have fever, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, headaches and tiredness. As the disease progresses, you may have serious muscle pain and stiffness in your neck and back. This illness can also leave you paralyzed.

Hib: is a bacterial infection that can cause blood infection (sepsis), brain infection (meningitis) and lung infection (pneumonia). children under the age of 5 are at greatest risk of contracting Hib.

How is it spread?

Diphtheria: is spread by direct contact with an infected person. You can also become infected through airborne droplets spread from the nose or throat of an infected person.

Tetanus: Most people think they can get tetanus from stepping on a rusty nail. While this is true, you can get tetanus just as easily from a small scrape or a cut. You can get tetanus from any object that breaks open your skin while working in the garden or doing repairs to your home, or even an animal bite.

Pertussis (whooping cough): is spread by coughing or sneezing. You can be infected while in close contact with others or from sharing personal items or things like drinks or utensils.

Hepatitis B: is spread person-to-person when you come into contact with blood and bodily fluids that are infected with the disease. About half of those infected do not know that they are infected. These people become chronic carriers of the virus; they remain contagious for as long as the virus remains in their liver. The virus is present in the blood, vaginal secretions, semen and saliva of contagious individuals; it spreads most often through sexual contact and shared needles. Infected individuals will likely experience fever, fatigue, loss of appetite and yellow skin and eyes.

Polio: is spread through the fecal oral route. You can also become infected by coming in contact with the stool of a person who is carrying polio.

Hib: is spread through coughing and sneezing. You can also become infected by touching objects that someone with Hib has touched, sneezed on or coughed on.

Diphtheria + tetanus + acellular pertussis + inactivated poliomyelitis

What is the DTaP-IPV vaccine?

DTaP-IPV vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), and polio.

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

The DTaP-IPV vaccine is the best way to protect against infection from diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), and polio, which are serious and often fatal diseases.

Who should get this vaccine?

The DTaP-IPV is recommended for children 4 to 6 years of age.

What are diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), and polio?

Diphtheria: is a contagious disease caused by bacteria that infects your nose, throat or skin. 

Tetanus: is a serious and often deadly disease caused by bacteria that live in dirt, dust and soil.

Pertussis (whooping cough): is a highly contagious respiratory infection. Infection can lead to uncontrollable coughing and difficulty breathing. It is most severe in infants under the age of 1.

Polio: is a contagious disease that attacks your immune system; it can paralyze muscles and cause death.

What are the symptoms of diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), and polio?

Diphtheria: some individuals infected with diphtheria do not look or feel sick. Others have difficulty swallowing and develop a sore throat, fever and chills. People with diphtheria can also suffer from suffocation, paralysis, heart failure, coma; these may also cause death,

Tetanus: the toxin that is released into the body affects the nervous system, causing painful muscle spasms. The first symptom is usually spasm of the jaw muscles ("lockjaw") followed by painful spasms of muscles in the face, neck, chest, abdomen, arms and legs.

Pertussis (whooping cough): early symptoms are similar to that of the common cold, which include mild fever, coughing, a runny nose, and watery eyes. As the disease progresses, the coughing gets worse; problems with coughing can last from six to 12 weeks. Severe symptoms can include choking, vomiting, brain damage and death.

Polio: some people who are infected with polio don't show any symptoms. Other have fever, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, headaches and tiredness. As the disease progresses, you may have serious muscle pain and stiffness in your neck and back. This illness can also leave you paralyzed.

How is it spread?

Diphtheria: is spread by direct contact with an infected person. You can also become infected through airborne droplets spread from the nose or throat of an infected person.

Tetanus: Most people think they can get tetanus from stepping on a rusty nail. While this is true, you can get tetanus just as easily from a small scrape or a cut. You can get tetanus from any object that breaks open your skin while working in the garden or doing repairs to your home, or even an animal bite.

Pertussis (whooping cough): is spread by coughing or sneezing. You can be infected while in close contact with others or from sharing personal items or things like drinks or utensils.

Polio: is spread through the fecal oral route. You can also become infected by coming in contact with the stool of a person who is carrying polio.

Diphtheria + tetanus + acellular pertussis + inactivated poliomyelitis + Haemophilus influenza

What is the DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccine?

DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), polio, and Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib)

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

The DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccine is the best way to protect against infection from diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), polio, and Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib), which are serious and often fatal diseases.

Who should get this vaccine?

The DTaP-IPV-Hib is recommended for children under 5 years of age.

What are diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), polio and Hib?

Diphtheria: is a contagious disease caused by bacteria that infects your nose, throat or skin. 

Tetanus: is a serious and often deadly disease caused by bacteria that live in dirt, dust and soil.

Pertussis (whooping cough): is a highly contagious respiratory infection. Infection can lead to uncontrollable coughing and difficulty breathing. It is most severe in infants under the age of 1.

Polio: is a contagious disease that attacks your immune system; it can paralyze muscles and cause death.

Hib: is a bacterial infection that can cause blood infection (sepsis), brain infection (meningitis) and lung infection (pneumonia). children under the age of 5 are at greatest risk of contracting Hib.

What are the symptoms of diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), polio and Hib?

Diphtheria: some individuals infected with diphtheria do not look or feel sick. Others have difficulty swallowing and develop a sore throat, fever and chills. People with diphtheria can also suffer from suffocation, paralysis, heart failure, coma; these may also cause death,

Tetanus: the toxin that is released into the body affects the nervous system, causing painful muscle spasms. The first symptom is usually spasm of the jaw muscles ("lockjaw") followed by painful spasms of muscles in the face, neck, chest, abdomen, arms and legs.

Pertussis (whooping cough): early symptoms are similar to that of the common cold, which include mild fever, coughing, a runny nose, and watery eyes. As the disease progresses, the coughing gets worse; problems with coughing can last from six to 12 weeks. Severe symptoms can include choking, vomiting, brain damage and death.

Polio: some people who are infected with polio don't show any symptoms. Other have fever, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, headaches and tiredness. As the disease progresses, you may have serious muscle pain and stiffness in your neck and back. This illness can also leave you paralyzed.

Hib: is a bacterial infection that can cause blood infection (sepsis), brain infection (meningitis) and lung infection (pneumonia). children under the age of 5 are at greatest risk of contracting Hib.

How is it spread?

Diphtheria: is spread by direct contact with an infected person. You can also become infected through airborne droplets spread from the nose or throat of an infected person.

Tetanus: Most people think they can get tetanus from stepping on a rusty nail. While this is true, you can get tetanus just as easily from a small scrape or a cut. You can get tetanus from any object that breaks open your skin while working in the garden or doing repairs to your home, or even an animal bite.

Pertussis (whooping cough): is spread by coughing or sneezing. You can be infected while in close contact with others or from sharing personal items or things like drinks or utensils.

Polio: is spread through the fecal oral route. You can also become infected by coming in contact with the stool of a person who is carrying polio.

Hib: is spread through coughing and sneezing. You can also become infected by touching objects that someone with Hib has touched, sneezed on or coughed on.

Haemophilus influenzae

What is the Hib vaccine?

Part of the Hib vaccine section was provided by the Meningitis Research Foundation of Canada.

An effective vaccine against Hib disease was introduced into the immunization programme in 1992. The Hib vaccine (Brand name Act-Hib®) is now routinely given to babies at 2, 4, and 6 months of age, with a booster at 18 months of age. In Canada, the Hib vaccine is combined with the diphtheria, tetanus, purified pertussis and polio vaccines so that babies get a single injection at each immunization visit.

The Hib vaccine protects against bacterial infection from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Please note, this disease is not the same as influenza (flu).

To learn more about how Haemophilus Influenza can protect against Meningitis, visit http://www.meningitis.ca/en/OverviewofVaccines.

What are the benefits of the vaccine?

The Hib vaccine is the best way to protect against infection from Hib which is a serious disease that can sometimes be fatal.

Who should get this vaccine?

The vaccine is recommended for children under the age of 5.

What is Hib?

Hib is a bacterial infection that can cause blood infection (sepsis), brain infection (meningitis) and lung infection (pneumonia). Children under the age of 5 are at greatest risk of contracting Hib.

What are the symptoms of Hib?

The symptoms of Hib change based on where the infection is found: in the blood, the brain or the lungs.

Blood infection: These symptoms include fever, confusion, headaches, body aches and a general feeling of being unwell.

Brain infection: These symptoms include fever, severe headaches, changes in behaviour and a stiff neck and back. Complications can cause deafness, seizures, paralysis, brain damage and death.

Lung infection: People with lung infections suffer from fever, have difficulty breathing and may cough up thick mucus.

How is it spread?

Hib is spread through coughing and sneezing. You can also become infected by touching objects that someone with Hib has touched, sneezed on or coughed on.

Hepatitis A

What is the Ha vaccine?

The HA vaccine protects against infection from the hepatitis A virus.

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

The HA vaccine is the best way to protect against the hepatitis A virus and its complications.

Who should get this vaccine?

The HA vaccine is recommended for individuals that are at increased risk for hepatitis A infection, including:

  • Travellers to countries where hepatitis A is endemic
  • Close contacts of an acute hepatitis A case
  • Those who live in correctional facilities and those for developmentally challenged individuals
  • Men who have sex with men (MSM)
  • Street drug users
  • Close contacts of children adopted from HA endemic countries
  • Those who live in some Aboriginal communities

What is Hepatitis A?

Hepatitis A is a virus that causes inflammation of your liver.

What are the symptoms of Hepatitis A?

People infected with the hepatitis A virus may not develop any symptoms; others can develop fever, fatigue, anorexia due to loss in appetite, nausea, stomach pain, dark urine, and yellowing of the skin and eyes (known as jaundice).

How is it spread?

Hepatitis A can be spread when stool contaminated by the virus comes in contact with the mouth usually through contaminated water or from unwashed hands. it can also be spread through food that has been prepared with contaminated water.

Hepatitis A + B

What is the HAHB vaccine?

The HAHB vaccine is a combination vaccine that protects against infection from both hepatitis A and B viruses.

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

The HAHB vaccine is the best way to protect against both the hepatitis A and B virus and its complications.

Who should get this vaccine?

The HAHB vaccine is recommended for individuals at increased risk for hepatitis A and/or B infection.

What is hepatitis A and B?

Hepatitis A: is a virus that causes inflammation of your liver.

Hepatitis B: is a contagious viral infection of the liver. The disease can be short-term (acute) or long-term (chronic).

What are the symptoms of hepatitis A and B?

Hepatitis A: People infected with the hepatitis A virus may not develop any symptoms; others can develop fever, fatigue, anorexia due to loss in appetite, nausea, stomach pain, dark urine, and yellowing of the skin and eyes (known as jaundice).

Hepatitis B: Acute hepatitis B can cause fever, tiredness, loss of appetite, and yellowing of the skin and eyes. It can also lead to chronic hepatitis B. Some people do not develop symptoms of illness. Chronic hepatitis B can cause serious liver disease such as scarring of the liver (cirrhosis) and liver cancer.

How is it spread?

Hepatitis A: can be spread when stool contaminated by the virus comes in contact with the mouth usually through contaminated water or from unwashed hands. it can also be spread through food that has been prepared with contaminated water.

Hepatitis B: is spread person-to-person when you come into contact with blood and bodily fluids that are infected with the disease. About half of those who are infected do not know that they are infected. These people become chronic carriers of the virus; they remain contagious for as long as the virus remains in their liver. The virus is present in the blood, vaginal secretions, semen and saliva of contagious individuals; it spread most often through sexual contact and shared needles. Infected individuals will likely experience fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, and yellow skin and eyes.

Hepatitis A + typhoid

What is the HA-Typh vaccine?

The HA-Typh vaccine provides protection against hepatitis A and typhoid.

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

The HA-Typh vaccine protects against serious infection from hepatitis A and typhoid.

Who should get this vaccine?

The HA-Typh vaccine is recommended for individuals 16 years of age and older travelling to or working in Asia, Africa, Central and South America, the Middle East or the Mediterranean.

What are hepatitis A and typhoid?

Hepatitis A: is a virus that causes inflammation of the liver.

Typhoid: is a bacterial disease that is found in contaminated food or water.

What are the symptoms of hepatitis A and typhoid?

Hepatitis A: People infected with the hepatitis A virus may not develop any symptoms; others can develop fever, fatigue, anorexia due to loss in appetite, nausea, stomach pain, dark urine, and yellowing of the skin and eyes (known as jaundice).

Typhoid: Symptoms of typhoid can take 1 to 3 weeks to appear after infection and can include fever, headache, loss of appetite, discomfort, dry cough and constipation. If left untreated, typhoid can cause inflammation in the liver and spleen, rashes, a slow heart rate and death.

How is it spread?

Hepatitis A can be spread when stool contaminated by the virus comes in contact with the mouth usually through contaminated water or from unwashed hands. it can also be spread through food that has been prepared with contaminated water.

Typhoid is found in human stool and urine; it spreads where there is poor sanitation. Infection with typhoid can also be caused by eating or drinking contaminated food or water.

Hepatitis B

What is the HB vaccine?

The HB vaccine protects against infection from the hepatitis B virus.

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

The HB vaccine is the best way to protect against the hepatitis B virus and its complications.

Who should get this vaccine?

The HA vaccine is recommended for individuals that are at increased risk for hepatitis A infection, including:

  • People who live with a person who has hepatitis B virus infection
  • Health care or public safety workers who are regularly exposed to blood or bodily fluids
  • Individuals with bleeding disorders that require transfusions
  • Individuals on kidney dialysis
  • Immigrants from countries where hepatitis B is common
  • People who use street drugs
  • Individuals with a sexually transmitted disease
  • Men who have sex with men
  • Individuals who work with people with developmental disabilities
  • Individuals with chronic liver disease
  • Individuals who work or live in a correctional facility

What is hepatitis B?

Hepatitis B is a contagious viral infection of the liver. The disease can be short-term (acute) or long-term (chronic).

What are the symptoms of hepatitis B?

Acute hepatitis B can cause fever, tiredness, loss of appetite, and yellowing of the skin and eyes. It can also lead to chronic hepatitis B. Some people do not develop symptoms of illness. 

Chronic hepatitis B can cause serious liver disease such as scarring of the liver (cirrhosis) and liver cancer.

How is it spread?

Hepatitis B is spread person-to-person when you come into contact with blood and bodily fluids that are infected with the disease. About half of those who are infected do not know that they are infected. These people become chronic carriers of the virus; they remain contagious for as long as the virus remains in their liver. The virus is present in the blood, vaginal secretions, semen and saliva of contagious individuals; it spread most often through sexual contact and shared needles. Infected individuals will likely experience fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, and yellow skin and eyes.

Human Papillomavirus

What is the HPV vaccine?

The HPV vaccines protects against the Human Papillomavirus, a sexually transmitted infection that cause most cervical cancers and less common cancers such as cancers of the anus, penis, vagina and vulva. Some vaccines also protect against HPV strains that can cause genital warts.

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

The HPV vaccines protect against cervical cancer and some strains that cause genital warts.

Who should get this vaccine?

The HPV vaccine is recommended for ales and females ages 9 to 26 years of age. The vaccine may also be administered to males and females over 26 years of age.

What is the Human Papillomavirus (HPV)?

HPV is a sexually transmitted infection.

What are the symptoms of HPV?

Most individuals infected with HPV have no symptoms. They can pass the virus on to others without even knowing it. For some individuals, infections will go away without treatment within a couple of years, but others may develop HPV- related complications such as genital or anogenital warts, cervical, penile, anal, head or neck cancer.

How is it spread?

HPV is passed on through genital contact with an infected person.

Influenza

What is the LAIV and TIV vaccine?

The trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) and the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) protects against 3 strains of the seasonal influenza.

What are the benefits of these vaccines?

These vaccines protect against influenza (flu), a serious infection that can often be fatal. When you receive these vaccines you also reduce the spread of influenza to others.

Who should get this vaccine?

LAIV: The LIAV is recommended for healthy children and adolescents between 2 and 17 years of age.

TIV: The TIV vaccine is recommended for individuals 6 months or older. It is also recommended for individuals at high risk of influenza and related complications, including:

  • Children under 5 years of age
  • Women who are pregnant
  • People with chronic conditions such as:

  • Heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Kidney disease
  • Blood disorders
  • Diabetes
  • Severe obesity
  • Asthma and chronic lung disease
  • Neurological disorders
  • Cancer or immune-compromising conditions

  • Aboriginal People
  • People 65 years of age or older
  • People who are residents of nursing homes or other chronic care facilities

What is influenza (flu)?

Influenza, or the flu, is a highly contagious and infectious respiratory disease.

What are the symptoms of influenza (flu)?

Influenza (flu) causes fever, sore throat, tiredness, sneezing, coughing, watery eyes, nausea, vomiting, and muscle pain. Complications of the flu can result in trouble breathing, convulsions, seizures and pneumonia.

How is it spread?

Influenza (flu) can be spread through coughing and sneezing. You can become infected by coming in close contact with someone sick with the flu. You can also become infected by touching objects that someone with the flu has touched and then touching your eyes or mouth.

Influenza A monovalent H1N1, adjuvanted

what is the pH1N1 vaccine?

The pH1N1 vaccine protects against the pandemic H1N1 strain of influenza.

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

The vaccine protects against influenza (flu), a serious infection that can often be fatal. When you receive this vaccine you also reduce the spread of influenza to others.

Who should get this vaccine?

Everyone should get this vaccine, especially those that are at high risk for serious illness from influenza and those that can spread influenza to individuals at risk fro serious illness.

What is influenza (flu)?

Influenza (flu) is a highly contagious and infection respiratory disease.

What are the symptoms of influenza (flu)?

Influenza (flu) causes fever, sore throat, tiredness, sneezing, coughing, watery eyes, nausea, vomiting, and muscle pain. Complications of the flu can result in trouble breathing, convulsions, seizures and pneumonia.

How is it spread?

Influenza (flu) can be spread through coughing and sneezing. You can become infected by coming in close contact with someone sick with the flu. You can also become infected by touching objects that someone with the flu has touched and then touching your eyes or mouth.

Influenza, trivalent

What is the TIV vaccine?

The trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) protects against 3 strains of the seasonal influenza.

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

The vaccine protects against influenza (flu), a serious infection that can often be fatal. When you receive this vaccine you also reduce the spread of influenza to others.

Who should get this vaccine?

The trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) is recommended for individuals 6 months or older. It is also recommended for individuals at high risk of influenza and related complications, including:

  • Children under 5 years of age
  • Women who are pregnant
  • People with chronic conditions such as:

  • Heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Kidney disease
  • Blood disorders
  • Diabetes
  • Severe obesity
  • Asthma and chronic lung disease
  • Neurological disorders
  • Cancer or immune-compromising conditions
  • Aboriginal People

  • People 65 years of age or older
  • People who are residents of nursing homes or other chronic care facilities

What is influenza (flu)?

Influenza (flu) is a highly contagious and infection respiratory disease.

What are the symptoms of influenza (flu)?

Influenza (flu) causes fever, sore throat, tiredness, sneezing, coughing, watery eyes, nausea, vomiting, and muscle pain. Complications of the flu can result in trouble breathing, convulsions, seizures and pneumonia.

How is it spread?

Influenza (flu) can be spread through coughing and sneezing. You can become infected by coming in close contact with someone sick with the flu. You can also become infected by touching objects that someone with the flu has touched and then touching your eyes or mouth.

Japanese encephalitis

What is the JE vaccine?

The JE vaccine helps protect against infection from the Japanese encephalitis virus that is spread by mosquitoes.

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

The JE vaccine is the best way to protect against infection from the virus that cause Japanese encephalitis which is a serious and sometimes fatal infection.

Who should get this vaccine?

The JE vaccine is recommended for individuals travelling to or working in Eastern and Southern Asia or the Western Pacific.

What is Japanese encephalitis?

Japanese encephalitis is a viral disease that causes swelling of the brain; it can result in long-term brain damage.

What are the symptoms of Japanese encephalitis?

Symptoms of Japanese encephalitis can take 5-to-15 days to appear. Some people don't show any symptoms at all. Other have fever, headache, seizures, weakness, mental or behavioural changes, paralysis, coma and death.

How is it spread?

The virus is regularly found in most Asian countries and some parts of Northern Australia and Eastern Russia. The disease is spread by mosquitoes. Infected mosquitoes transmit the virus by biting a human.

Measles + Mumps + Rubella

What is the MMR vaccine?

The MMR vaccine provides protection against measles, mumps, and rubella.

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

The MMR vaccine is the best way to protect against measles, mumps and rubella infection and their complications.

Who should get this vaccine?

The MMR vaccine is recommended for children between 12 and 18 months of age as part of the routine vaccination schedule, and is recommended for adults who have not been vaccinated as children.

What is measles, mumps and rubella?

Measles: is a very contagious disease caused by a virus. It causes rashes, high fever, runny nose, coughing and inflammation of the eyelids.

Mumps: is a disease that causes fever, headache, and welling of the salivary glands around your jaw and cheeks.

Rubella: is a disease that causes fever, sore throat, and swollen glands.

What are the symptoms of measles, mumps and rubella?

Measles: red blotchy rashes, high fever, runny nose, drowsiness, irritability, and red eyes. These symptoms can take 7-14 days to develop.

Mumps: fever, headache, sore muscles, earaches, a loss of appetite and welling of the salivary glands under the ear or jaw (which can cause your cheeks to bulge out).

Rubella: some people who are infected with rubella don't show any symptoms. Those who do can have a low fever, cold-like symptoms, a pink or red rash, achy joints and slightly swollen glands.

How is it spread?

Measles: is very contagious; it can spread quickly when airborne droplets from an infected person are released when they cough or sneeze.

Mumps: is spread through direct contact with the saliva of an infected person.

Rubella: is spread through coughing and sneezing. You can also become infected by coming in close contact with someone who is sick with rubella.

Meningococcal

Are there different meningococcus strains? What are the associated vaccines?

The Meningococcus section was provided by the Meningitis Research
Foundation of Canada.

Yes, there are several strains of meningococcus. The most common are called Groups A, B, C, Y and W. Vaccines are used routinely to protect against groups ACYW.

Children across Canada are routinely vaccinated with one of the conjugated group C vaccines (Menjugate C® NeissVac C® or Meningitech®) that protect only against caused by group C at 1 year of age or earlier. In addition, many provinces also vaccines children in school-base diseased programs between 10-13 years of age. 

Conjugated ACYW vaccine protects against meningococcal disease caused by groups A,C,Y and W-135. It can be used in children 2 years of age and older previously vaccinated against Group C, thereby serving as a booster of immunity to group C while also providing protection against groups A, Y, and W. It can also be used in children 2 years of age and older who have not previously been vaccinated with any meningococcal vaccine.

To learn more, visit http://www.meningitis.ca/en/MeningococcalVaccine

What is the Men-C-C vaccine?

The Men-C-C vaccine protects against infection from meningococcal bacteria, type C.

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

The Men-C-C vaccine protects against serous infection from meningococcal type C that can sometimes be fatal.

Who should get this vaccine?

The Men-C-C vaccine is recommended for infants and pre-teens. It is also recommended fro individuals at risk, including:

  • People with functional or anatomic asplenia (including sickle cell disease)
  • People with certain genetic risk factors
  • People who have been exposed to an infected person
  • People with respiratory tract infection
  • People recently infected with influenza
  • People living in crowded housing
  • People with HIV

What is meningococcal disease?

Meningococcal disease, is a rare but potentially serious infection caused by meningococcal bacteria. Infection can lead to two complications: brain infection ( meningitis) or blood infection (septicemia). While meningococcal disease and its complication are uncommon, the consequences can be devastating.

What are the symptoms of meningococcal disease?

Early signs and symptoms of meningococcal disease include: sever headaches, neck stiffness, high fevers and a rash. If these occurs, immediately seek medical attention.

How is it spread?

Meningococcal disease spreads through close contact and sharing of items like drinks, cutlery or toys. However, the most common form of transmission is contact with carriers of the bacteria. One in five healthy teens and adults are carriers of the bacteria and may remain a carrier of the same strain for up to six months.

Meningococcal B

What is the 4CMenB vaccine?

The 4CMenB vaccine protects against infection from some strains of the meningococcal bacteria, type B.

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

The 4CMenB vaccine is effective at protecting against infection from some strains of meningococcal type B.

Who should get this vaccine?

The 4CMenB vaccine is recommended on an individual basis for people > 2 months of age. It is also recommended for active immunization in people > 2 months of age who are at high risk of meningococcal disease.

People at high risk include:

  • People with functional or anatomic asplenia (including sickle cell disease)
  • People with congenital or acquired complement, properdin, factor D or primary antibody deficiencies
  • People with certain genetic risk factors
  • People who have been exposed to an infected person
  • People with respiratory tract infection
  • People recently infected with influenza
  • Researchers, laboratory and industry personnel constantly exposed to meningococcal disease
  • Military personnel during recruit training
  • Travellers
  • People who have had close contact with a person with meningococcal disease, including:

  • In crowded housing or sleeping arrangements
  • Direct nose or mouth contact (e.g. kissing)
  • Children and staff in child care facilities

Immunization of people with HIV can be considered. People with HIV should speak with their health care provider about what is appropriate for them.

The vaccine is also recommended for control of outbreaks with meningococcal B, if the strain causing illness is one in the vaccine.

what is meningococcal disease?

Meningococcal disease, is a rare but potentially serious infection caused by meningococcal bacteria. Infection can lead to two complications: brain infection ( meningitis) or blood infection (septicemia). While meningococcal disease and its complication are uncommon, the consequences can be devastating.

What are the symptoms of meningococcal disease?

Early signs and symptoms of meningococcal disease include: sever headaches, neck stiffness, high fevers and a rash. If these occurs, immediately seek medical attention.

How is it spread?

Meningococcal disease spreads through close contact and sharing of items like drinks, cutlery or toys. However, the most common form of transmission is contact with carriers of the bacteria. One in five healthy teens and adults are carriers of the bacteria and may remain a carrier of the same strain for up to six months.

Where can I learn more about Meningococcal vaccines in Canada?

Visit the Meningitis Research Foundation of Canada website at: http://www.meningitis.ca/en/MeningococcalVaccine

Meningococcal conjugate A + C + Y + W135

What is the Men-C-ACYW-135

The Men-C-ACYW-135 vaccine protects against 4 types of meningococcal bacteria.

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

The vaccine is the best way to protect against meningococcal disease, a serious infection that can often be fatal.

Who should get this vaccine?

The Men-C-ACYW-135 vaccine is recommended for pre-teens. It is also recommended for individuals between 2-55 years of age in the following high-risk groups:

  • People with functional or anatomic asplenia
  • People with complement, properdin, or factor D deficiencies
  • People with HIV
  • Travellers when meningococcal vaccine is indicated of required, including pilgrims to the Hajj in Mecca
  • People who have been exposed to an infected person
  • Researchers, laboratory and industry personnel who are routinely exposed to N. meningitidis
  • Military personnel during recruit training

What is the meningococcal disease?

Meningococcal disease, is a rare but potentially serious infection caused by meningococcal bacteria. Infection can lead to two complications: brain infection ( meningitis) or blood infection (septicemia). While meningococcal disease and its complication are uncommon, the consequences can be devastating.

What are the symptoms of meningococcal disease?

Early signs and symptoms of meningococcal disease include: sever headaches, neck stiffness, high fevers and a rash. If these occurs, immediately seek medical attention.

How is it spread?

Meningococcal disease spreads through close contact and sharing of items like drinks, cutlery or toys. However, the most common form of transmission is contact with carriers of the bacteria. One in five healthy teens and adults are carriers of the bacteria and may remain a carrier of the same strain for up to six months.

Where can I learn more about Meningococcal conjugate A + C + Y + W135?

Visit the Meningitis Research Foundation of Canada at http://www.meningitis.ca/en/MeningococcalVaccine

Meningococcal polysaccharide A + C + Y + W135

What is the Men-P-ACYW-135 vaccine?

The Men-P-ACYW-135 vaccine protects against 4 types of meningococcal bacteria.

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

The vaccine is the best way to protect against meningococcal disease, a serious infection that can often be fatal.

Who should get this vaccine?

The vaccine is not recommended for routine immunization. The vaccine is recommended for certain groups that may be at increased risk of infection of meningococcal disease. These include:

  • ‍People with functional or anatomic asplenia
  • ‍People with complement, properdin, or factor D deficiencies
  • Military recruits
  • Travellers to high-risk areas
  • Researchers, laboratory and industry personnel who are routinely exposed to N. meningitidis

What is meningococcal disease?

Meningococcal disease, is a rare but potentially serious infection caused by meningococcal bacteria. Infection can lead to two complications: brain infection ( meningitis) or blood infection (septicemia). While meningococcal disease and its complication are uncommon, the consequences can be devastating.

What are the symptoms of meningococcal disease?

Early signs and symptoms of meningococcal disease include: sever headaches, neck stiffness, high fevers and a rash. If these occurs, immediately seek medical attention.

How is it spread?

Meningococcal disease spreads through close contact and sharing of items like drinks, cutlery or toys. However, the most common form of transmission is contact with carriers of the bacteria. One in five healthy teens and adults are carriers of the bacteria and may remain a carrier of the same strain for up to six months.

Pneumococcal conjugate 10-valent

What is the Pneu-C-10 vaccine?

The pneumococcus section was provided by the Meningitis ResearchFoundation of Canada

Like other meningitis bacteria, the pneumococcus is covered by a capsule or coat made of a complex sugar called a polysaccharide. Although there are 84different types of pneumococci, most cases of disease are caused by a much smaller number.

A polysaccharide vaccine is used in children, adolescents, and adults at increased risk of pneumococcal disease and is recommended for all those over 65years of age. It contains purified polysaccharides against 23 strains of the pneumococcus which cause over 85% of all disease in older children and adults.

The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is recommended for routine immunization of all infants at 2, 4, and 6 months of age, followed by a booster at 18 months of age. Many provinces have changed to a three dose schedule for infants at 2, 4, and 12 months of age. The 3-dose schedule has been shown to be as effective as the original four dose schedule.

Catch-up programs to immunize older infants and children less than 5 years of age will require 1 or 2 doses of vaccine, depending on the age of the child at the time of first vaccination. Since November 2005, the vaccine is available in all provinces and territories as part of the routine childhood immunization schedule at no cost to parents. It has proven to be as effective in Canada as it has been in the USA.

For more information, visit: http://www.meningitis.ca/en/PneumococcalVaccine

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

The vaccine is the best way to protect against pneumococcal disease.

Who should get this vaccine?

The Pneu-C-10 vaccine is recommended as part of the routine childhood immunization schedule but the Pneu-C-13 vaccine is recommended as the product of choice.

The vaccine is recommended for infants and children at 2, 4, 6 and 12 to 15 months of age. It is also recommended for adults who:

  • have had a hematopoietic stem cell transplant
  • have HIV
  • have an immunosuppressive condition

What is pneumococcal disease?

Pneumococcal disease is a bacterial disease that may lead to four serious infections:

  1. Meningitis (brain infection)
  2. Bacteremia (bloodstream infection)
  3. Pneumonia (lung infection)
  4. Otitis media (ear infection)

What are the symptoms o pneumococcal disease?

People with this disease may have a fever, be irritable and may lose their appetite. Those who have meningitis or bacteremia may have headaches, vomiting and a stiff neck. Those with pneumonia may cough up thick mucus and have difficulty breathing. Those with otitis media will have severe ear pain.

How is it spread?

The bacteria are spread from an infected person to another by close contact such as kissing, coughing and sneezing or sharing items such as cigarettes, toys and musical instruments.

Pneumococcal conjugate 13-valent

What is the Pneu-C-13 vaccine?

The Pneu-C-13 vaccine protects against infection from 13 types of pneumococcal bacteria.

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

The vaccine is the best way to protect against pneumococcal disease.

Who should get this vaccine?

The vaccine is recommended for infants and children at 2, 4, 6 and 12 to 15 months of age. It is also recommended for adults who:

  • have had a hematopoietic stem cell transplant
  • have HIV
  • have an immunosuppressive condition

What is pneumococcal disease?

Pneumococcal disease is a bacterial disease that may lead to four serious infections:

  1. Meningitis (brain infection)
  2. Bacteremia (bloodstream infection)
  3. Pneumonia (lung infection)
  4. Otitis media (ear infection)

What are the symptoms of pneumococcal disease?

People with this disease may have a fever, be irritable and may lose their appetite. Those who have meningitis or bacteremia may have headaches, vomiting and a stiff neck. Those with pneumonia may cough up thick mucus and have difficulty breathing. Those with otitis media will have severe ear pain.

How is it spread?

The bacteria are spread from an infected person to another by close contact such as kissing, coughing and sneezing or sharing items such as cigarettes, toys and musical instruments.

Pneumococcal polysaccharide 23-valent

What is the Pneu-P-23 vaccine?

The Pneu-P-23 vaccine protects against infection from 23 types of pneumococcal bacteria.

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

The vaccine is the best way to protect against pneumococcal disease.

Who should get this vaccine?

The Pneu-P-23 vaccine is recommended for adults 65 years and older and those living in residential care, assisted living or group facilities of any age.

What is pneumococcal disease?

Pneumococcal disease is a bacterial disease that may lead to four serious infections:

  1. Meningitis (brain infection)
  2. Bacteremia (bloodstream infection)
  3. Pneumonia (lung infection)
  4. Otitis media (ear infection)

What are the symptoms of pneumococcal disease?

People with this disease may have a fever, be irritable and may lose their appetite. Those who have meningitis or bacteremia may have headaches, vomiting and a stiff neck. Those with pneumonia may cough up thick mucus and have difficulty breathing. Those with otitis media will have severe ear pain.

How is it spread?

The bacteria are spread from an infected person to another by close contact such as kissing, coughing and sneezing or sharing items such as cigarettes, toys and musical instruments.

Polio

What is the IPV vaccine?

The IPV vaccine protects against all 3 types of polio.

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

The vaccine protects against infection from the polio virus, which is a serious and often fatal infection.

Who should get this vaccine?

The IPV vaccine is recommended as a booster for adults who have received a polio vaccine as children but will be working or travelling in an area where polio still occurs.

What is polio?

Polio is a contagious disease that attacks your immune system; it can paralyze muscles and cause death.

What are the symptoms of polio?

Some people who are infected with polio don't show any symptoms. Others have fever, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, headaches and tiredness. As the disease progresses, you may have severe muscle pain and stiffness in your neck and back. This illness can also leave you paralyzed.

How is it spread?

Polio is spread through the fecal oral route. You can also become infected by coming in contact with the stool of a person who is carrying polio.

Rabies

What are the HDCV and PCECV vaccine?

The HDCV and PCECV vaccine provide protection against infection from the virus that causes rabies.

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

That vaccine helps to prevent rabies, a serious and sometimes fatal infection if not treated early.

Who should get this vaccine?

The rabies vaccine is offered to individuals that are at high risk of close contact with animals that have rabies or can contract rabies and or work with the rabies virus.

What is rabies?

Rabies is a viral disease that attacks your central nervous system, and causes swelling of your brain (encephalitis).

What are the symptoms of rabies?

People may be infected for 20 to 60 days before symptoms appear. Symptoms can include confusion, irritation, rage, hallucinations, a fear of water, paralysis and death from breathing failure.

How is it spread?

The disease is spread when you have broken skin that comes into close contact with the saliva of infected animals. Broken skin can include bites, scratches, licks on cut skin or contact of the virus with your eyes, nose or mouth.

Rotavirus

What is the Rota vaccine?

The Rota vaccine protects against the virus that causes rotavirus disease.

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

The rotavirus vaccine protects against 3 out of 4 cases of the rotavirus disease. It also protects against almost all severe cases of the disease.

Who should get this vaccine?

The rotavirus vaccine is recommended for babies between 2 and 6 months of age.

What is rotavirus?

Rotavirus is a very contagious virus that causes severe inflammation of the stomach and intestine called gastroenteritis.

What are the symptoms of rotavirus?

Symptoms of rotavirus include fever, vomiting and non-bloody diarrhea that can lead to mild to severe dehydration, including hospitalization.

How is it spread?

Rotavirus is very contagious and can spread by coming in close contact with someone who is infected with the virus. You can also become infected through contact with infected objects (such as toys, door knobs, counter tops); the infection can occur when you touch the infected object and then touch your mouth or eyes.

Tetanus + diphtheria + acellular pertussis + inactivated poliomyelitis, adult

What is the Tdap-IPV vaccine?

The Tdap-IPV vaccine protects against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough) and polio.

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

The Tdap-IPV vaccine protects against infection from tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough) and polio, which are serious and often fatal diseases.

Who should get this vaccine?

The Tdap-IPV vaccine is given to individuals between 14 and 16 years of age.

What is tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough) and polio?

Tetanus: is a serious and often deadly disease caused by bacteria that live in dirt, dust and soil.

Diphtheria: is a contagious disease caused by bacteria that infects your nose, throat or skin.

Pertussis (whooping cough): is a highly contagious respiratory infection. Infection can lead to uncontrollable coughing and difficulty breathing. It is most severe in infants under the age of 1.

Polio: is a contagious disease that attacks your immune system; it can paralyze muscles and cause death.

What are the symptoms of tetanus, diphtheria and polio?

Tetanus: the toxin that is released into the body affects the nervous system, causing painful muscle spasms. The first symptom is usually spasm of the jaw muscles ("lockjaw") followed by the painful spasms of muscles in the face, neck, chest, abdomen, arms and legs.

Diphtheria: some individuals infected with diphtheria do not look or feel sick. Others have difficulty swallowing and develop a sore throat, fever and chills. People with diphtheria can also suffer from suffocation, paralysis, heart failure, coma; these may also cause death.

Pertussis (whooping cough): early symptoms are similar to that of the common cold, which include mild fever, coughing, a runny nose, and watery eyes. As the disease progresses, the coughing gets worse; problems with coughing can last from six to 12 weeks. Severe symptoms can include choking, vomiting, brain damage and death.

Polio: Some people who are infected with polio don't show any symptoms. Others have fever, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, headaches and tiredness. As the disease progresses, you may have severe muscle pain and stiffness in your neck and back. This illness can also leave you paralyzed.

How is it spread?

Tetanus: most people think they can get tetanus from stepping on a rusty nail. While this is true, you can get tetanus just as easily from a small scrape or cut. You can get tetanus from any object that breaks open your skin while working in the garden or doing repairs to your home, or even an animal bite.

Diphtheria: is spread by direct contact with an infected person. You can also become infected through airborne droplets spread from the nose of throat of an infected person.

Pertussis (whooping cough): is spread by coughing or sneezing. You can be infected while in close contact with others or from sharing personal items or things like drinks or utensils.

Polio: is spread through the fecal oral route. You can also become infected by coming in contact with the stool of a person who is carrying polio.

Tetanus + diphtheria + acellular pertussis, adult

What is the Tdap vaccine?

The Tdap vaccine protects against tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis (whooping cough).

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

The Tdap vaccine protects against infection from tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis (whooping cough), which are serious and often fatal diseases.

Who should get this vaccine?

The Tdap vaccine is recommended for individuals between 14 and 16 years of age and once in adulthood.

What is tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis (whooping cough)?

Tetanus: is a serious and often deadly disease caused by bacteria that live in dirt, dust and soil.

Diphtheria: is a contagious disease caused by bacteria that infects your nose, throat or skin.

Pertussis (whooping cough): is a highly contagious respiratory infection. Infection can lead to uncontrollable coughing and difficulty breathing. It is most severe in infants under the age of 1.

What are the symptoms of tetanus and diphtheria?

Tetanus: the toxin that is released into the body affects the nervous system, causing painful muscle spasms. The first symptom is usually spasm of the jaw muscles ("lockjaw") followed by the painful spasms of muscles in the face, neck, chest, abdomen, arms and legs.

Diphtheria: some individuals infected with diphtheria do not look or feel sick. Others have difficulty swallowing and develop a sore throat, fever and chills. People with diphtheria can also suffer from suffocation, paralysis, heart failure, coma; these may also cause death.

Pertussis (whooping cough): early symptoms are similar to that of the common cold, which include mild fever, coughing, a runny nose, and watery eyes. As the disease progresses, the coughing gets worse; problems with coughing can last from six to 12 weeks. Severe symptoms can include choking, vomiting, brain damage and death.

How is it spread?

Tetanus: most people think they can get tetanus from stepping on a rusty nail. While this is true, you can get tetanus just as easily from a small scrape or cut. You can get tetanus from any object that breaks open your skin while working in the garden or doing repairs to your home, or even an animal bite.

Diphtheria: is spread by direct contact with an infected person. You can also become infected through airborne droplets spread from the nose of throat of an infected person.

Pertussis (whooping cough): is spread by coughing or sneezing. You can be infected while in close contact with others or from sharing personal items or things like drinks or utensils.

Tetanus + diphtheria + inactivated poliomyelitis, adult

What is the Td-IPV vaccine?

The Td-IPV vaccine protects against tetanus and diphtheria and polio.

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

The Td vaccine protects against infection from tetanus, diphtheria and polio, which are serious and often fatal infections.

Who should get this vaccine?

The Td-IPV vaccine is recommended for adults that need a booster dose against tetanus, diphtheria and polio.

What is tetanus, diphtheria, and poilio?

Tetanus: is a serious and often deadly disease caused by bacteria that live in dirt, dust and soil.

Diphtheria: is a contagious disease caused by bacteria that infects your nose, throat or skin.

Polio: is a contagious disease that attacks your immune system; it can paralyze muscles and cause death.

What are the symptoms of tetanus, diphtheria and polio?

Tetanus: the toxin that is released into the body affects the nervous system, causing painful muscle spasms. The first symptom is usually spasm of the jaw muscles ("lockjaw") followed by the painful spasms of muscles in the face, neck, chest, abdomen, arms and legs.

Diphtheria: some individuals infected with diphtheria do not look or feel sick. Others have difficulty swallowing and develop a sore throat, fever and chills. People with diphtheria can also suffer from suffocation, paralysis, heart failure, coma; these may also cause death.

Polio: Some people who are infected with polio don't show any symptoms. Others have fever, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, headaches and tiredness. As the disease progresses, you may have severe muscle pain and stiffness in your neck and back. This illness can also leave you paralyzed.

How is it spread?

Tetanus: most people think they can get tetanus from stepping on a rusty nail. While this is true, you can get tetanus just as easily from a small scrape or cut. You can get tetanus from any object that breaks open your skin while working in the garden or doing repairs to your home, or even an animal bite.

Diphtheria: is spread by direct contact with an infected person. You can also become infected through airborne droplets spread from the nose of throat of an infected person.

Polio: is spread through the fecal oral route. You can also become infected by coming in contact with the stool of a person who is carrying polio.

Tetanus + diphtheria, adult

What is the Td vaccine?

The Td vaccine protects against tetanus and diphtheria.

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

The Td vaccine protects against infection from tetanus and diphtheria, which can sometimes be fatal.

Who should get this vaccine?

The vaccine is recommended as a booster fro adults who have received their tetanus and diphtheria vaccination as part of the routine childhood vaccination schedule. It is recommended that adults receive a booster every 10 years.

What is tetanus and diphtheria?

Tetanus: is a serious and often deadly disease caused by bacteria that live in dirt, dust and soil.

Diphtheria: is a contagious disease caused by bacteria that infects your nose, throat or skin.

What are the symptoms of tetanus and diphtheria?

Tetanus: the toxin that is released into the body affects the nervous system, causing painful muscle spasms. The first symptom is usually spasm of the jaw muscles ("lockjaw") followed by the painful spasms of muscles in the face, neck, chest, abdomen, arms and legs.

Diphtheria: some individuals infected with diphtheria do not look or feel sick. Others have difficulty swallowing and develop a sore throat, fever and chills. People with diphtheria can also suffer from suffocation, paralysis, heart failure, coma; these may also cause death.

How is it spread?

Tetanus: most people think they can get tetanus from stepping on a rusty nail. While this is true, you can get tetanus just as easily from a small scrape or cut. You can get tetanus from any object that breaks open your skin while working in the garden or doing repairs to your home, or even an animal bite.

Diphtheria: is spread by direct contact with an infected person. You can also become infected through airborne droplets spread from the nose of throat of an infected person.

Typhoid

What is the Typh vaccine?

The Typh vaccine provides protection against typhoid, a disease caused by the typhoid bacteria.

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

The vaccine is the best way to help protect against infection from typhoid. It is still very important that good hygiene is maintained and precautions are taken when taking food and drinks during travel.

Who should get this vaccine?

The Typh vaccine is recommended for individuals travelling to or working in Asia, Africa, Central and South America, the Middle East or the Mediterranean.

What is typhoid?

Typhoid is a bacterial disease that is found in contaminated food or water.

What are the symptoms of hepatitis A and typhoid?

Symptoms of typhoid can take 1 to 3 weeks to appear after infection and can include fever, headache, loss of appetite, discomfort, dry cough and constipation. If left untreated, typhoid can cause inflammation in the liver and spleen, rashes, a slow heart rate and death.

How is it spread?

Typhoid is found in human stool and urine; it spreads where there is poor sanitation. Infection with typhoid can also be caused by eating or drinking contaminated food or water.

Varicella

What is the var vaccine?

The var vaccine protects against the varicella-zoster virus that causes chickenpox.

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

The var vaccine is the best way to protect you and your child against chickenpox and its complications.

Who should get this vaccine?

The chickenpox vaccine is given to children between 12 and 18 months of age or between 4 and 6 years of age.

What is varicella (chickenpox)?

Chickenpox is a viral disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus.

What are the symptoms of varicella (chickenpox)?

Symptoms include a slight fever, headaches, a runny nose, fluid filled blisters and a general ill feeling.

How is it spread?

The disease is spread by direct contact with fluid in the lesions or through airborne spread from the respiratory tract of an infected person.

Yellow Fever

What is the YF vaccine?

The YF vaccine helps protect against infection from yellow fever virus that is spread by infected mosquitoes.

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

The vaccine is the bet way to protect against infection from the yellow fever virus that can sometimes be fatal. Since the vaccine does not provide full protection, it is important that precautions are taken to prevent mosquito bites.

Who should get this vaccine?

The vaccine is recommended for those travelling to or working in tropical areas of Africa or Central and South America.

What is yellow fever?

Yellow fever is a viral disease that can cause hemorrhagic fever.

What are the symptoms of yellow fever?

Symptoms of yellow fever include fever, headache, chills, backache, muscle and joint pain, nausea, vomiting, yellowing of the skin and eyes and fear of light. If the infection progresses, it can cause kidney failure and bleeding under the skin, eyes, mouth, ears or internal organs.

How is it spread?

The virus is found regularly in tropical regions of Africa and South America; it is spread by mosquito bites.

Zoster

What is the Zos (herpes zoster) vaccine?

The zos vaccine protect against shingles which occurs when the virus that causes chickenpox becomes active again.

What are the benefits of this vaccine?

The Zos vaccine protects against shingles and helps to reduce the pain and symptoms of shingles.

Who should get this vaccine?

The herpes zoster vaccine is recommended for adults 60 years of age and older.

What is herpes zoster (shingles)?

Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, is a painful diseases that results from the reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), the same virus that causes varicella (chickenpox).

What are the symptoms of herpes zoster (shingles)?

You may feel itching, tingling, burning or pain in a specific area of the body, typically on one side of the body or face, prior to the appearance of a blistering rash. For most people, the pain associated with the shingles rash usually lessens and heals. For some, shingles can cause severe pain after the rash has healed, which can last for months of years.

How is it spread?

After you have the varicella (chickenpox) infection, the virus lies dormant for many years. It will become active again and present itself in the form of shingles. Shingles is an often debilitating and blistering rash that typically affects a side of your body or face. Some people experience severe long-term pain after the shingles rash has disappeared. These people also face other complications, including skin infections and scarring, which can interfere with normal day-to-day activities.

The content and resources provided by CANImmunize are generated by the mHealth Lab team and its partners, including medical experts from leading Canadian Health Organizations. It is designed to help you make the most informed decisions about your and your family’s vaccination needs, but should not replace medical advice. Please discuss these topics with your healthcare provider. No content on the CANImmunize platform implies endorsement.

Last updated: 01/11/2018

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